"Because life is too short to parse command line parameters"

1. Overview

JCommander is a very small Java framework that makes it trivial to parse command line parameters. You annotate fields with descriptions of your options:

import com.beust.jcommander.Parameter;

public class Args {
  private List<String> parameters = new ArrayList<>();

  @Parameter(names = { "-log", "-verbose" }, description = "Level of verbosity")
  private Integer verbose = 1;

  @Parameter(names = "-groups", description = "Comma-separated list of group names to be run")
  private String groups;

  @Parameter(names = "-debug", description = "Debug mode")
  private boolean debug = false;

  private Integer setterParameter;
  @Parameter(names = "-setterParameter", description = "A parameter annotation on a setter method")
  public void setParameter(Integer value) {
    this.setterParameter = value;

and then you simply ask JCommander to parse:

Args args = new Args();
String[] argv = { "-log", "2", "-groups", "unit" };

Assert.assertEquals(args.verbose.intValue(), 2);

Here is another example:

class Main {
    @Parameter(names={"--length", "-l"})
    int length;
    @Parameter(names={"--pattern", "-p"})
    int pattern;

    public static void main(String ... argv) {
        Main main = new Main();

    public void run() {
        System.out.printf("%d %d", length, pattern);
$ java Main -l 512 --pattern 2
512 2

2. Types of options

The fields representing your parameters can be of any type. Basic types (Integer, Boolean, Enum, etc…​) are supported by default and you can write type converters to support any other type (custom types, etc…​).

In fact, JCommander provides a rather comprehensive set of built-in conversions for commonly used special types, just to name the most notable ones (list is incomplete): char[], File, Path, URI, URL, InetAddress, Date (ISO 8601), ByteOrder, Charset.

2.1. Boolean

When a Parameter annotation is found on a field of type boolean or Boolean, JCommander interprets it as an option with an arity of 0:

@Parameter(names = "-debug", description = "Debug mode")
private boolean debug = false;

Such a parameter does not require any additional parameter on the command line and if it’s detected during parsing, the corresponding field will be set to true. If you want to define a boolean parameter that’s true by default, you can declare it as having an arity of 1. Users will then have to specify the value they want explicitly:

@Parameter(names = "-debug", description = "Debug mode", arity = 1)
private boolean debug = true;

Invoke with either of:

program -debug true
program -debug false

When a Parameter annotation is found on a field of type String, Integer, int, Long or long, JCommander will parse the following parameter and it will attempt to cast it to the right type:

@Parameter(names = "-log", description = "Level of verbosity")
private Integer verbose = 1;
java Main -log 3

will cause the field verbose to receive the value 3. However:

$ java Main -log test

will cause an exception to be thrown.

2.2. Lists and Sets

When a Parameter annotation is found on a field of type List or Set, JCommander will interpret it as an option that can occur multiple times:

@Parameter(names = {"-host", "-hosts"}, description = "Host option can be used multiple times, and may be comma-separated")
private List<String> hosts = new ArrayList<>();

will allow you to parse the following command line:

$ java Main -host host1 -verbose -host host2

Alternatively the parameters can be provided as a comma-separated list:

$ java Main -hosts host1,host2

When JCommander is done parsing the line above, the field hosts will contain the strings "host1" and "host2".

2.3. Password

If one of your parameters is a password or some other value that you do not wish to appear in your history or in clear, you can declare it of type password and JCommander will then ask you to enter it in the console:

public class ArgsPassword {
  @Parameter(names = "-password", description = "Connection password", password = true)
  private String password;

When you run your program, you will get the following prompt:

Value for -password (Connection password):

You will need to type the value at this point before JCommander resumes.

2.4. Echo Input

In Java 6, by default, you will not be able to see what you type for passwords entered at the prompt (Java 5 and lower will always show the password). However, you can override this by setting echoInput to true (default is false and this setting only has an effect when password is true):

public class ArgsPassword {
  @Parameter(names = "-password", description = "Connection password", password = true, echoInput = true)
  private String password;

3. Custom types (converters and splitters)

To bind parameters to custom types or change the way how JCommander splits parameters (default is to split via comma) JCommander provides two interfaces IStringConverter and IParameterSplitter.

3.1. Custom types - Single value

Use either the converter= attribute of the @Parameter or implement IStringConverterFactory.

3.1.1. By annotation

By default, JCommander parses the command line into basic types only (strings, booleans, integers and longs). Very often, your application actually needs more complex types (such as files, host names, lists, etc.). To achieve this, you can write a type converter by implementing the following interface:

public interface IStringConverter<T> {
  T convert(String value);

For example, here is a converter that turns a string into a File:

public class FileConverter implements IStringConverter<File> {
  public File convert(String value) {
    return new File(value);

Then, all you need to do is declare your field with the correct type and specify the converter as an attribute:

@Parameter(names = "-file", converter = FileConverter.class)
File file;

JCommander ships with a few common converters (for more info please see the implementations of IStringConverter).


If a converter is used for a List field:

@Parameter(names = "-files", converter = FileConverter.class)
List<File> files;

And the application is called as follows:

$ java App -files file1,file2,file3

JCommander will split the string file1,file2,file3 into file1, file2, file3 and feed it one by one to the converter.

For an alternative solution to parse a list of values, see Custom types - List value.

3.1.2. By factory

If the custom types you use appear multiple times in your application, having to specify the converter in each annotation can become tedious. To address this, you can use an IStringConverterFactory:

public interface IStringConverterFactory {
  <T> Class<? extends IStringConverter<T>> getConverter(Class<T> forType);

For example, suppose you need to parse a string representing a host and a port:

$ java App -target example.com:8080

You define the holder class :

public class HostPort {
  public HostPort(String host, String port) {
     this.host = host;
     this.port = port;

  final String host;
  final Integer port;

and the string converter to create instances of this class:

class HostPortConverter implements IStringConverter<HostPort> {
  public HostPort convert(String value) {
    String[] s = value.split(":");
    return new HostPort(s[0], Integer.parseInt(s[1]));

The factory is straightforward:

public class Factory implements IStringConverterFactory {
  public Class<? extends IStringConverter<?>> getConverter(Class forType) {
    if (forType.equals(HostPort.class)) return HostPortConverter.class;
    else return null;

You can now use the type HostPort as a parameter without any converterClass attribute:

public class ArgsConverterFactory {
  @Parameter(names = "-hostport")
  private HostPort hostPort;

All you need to do is add the factory to your JCommander object:

ArgsConverterFactory a = new ArgsConverterFactory();
JCommander jc = JCommander.newBuilder()
    .addConverterFactory(new Factory())
    .parse("-hostport", "example.com:8080");

Assert.assertEquals(a.hostPort.host, "example.com");
Assert.assertEquals(a.hostPort.port.intValue(), 8080);

Another advantage of using string converter factories is that your factories can come from a dependency injection framework.

3.2. Custom types - List value

Use the listConverter= attribute of the @Parameter annotation and assign a custom IStringConverter implementation to convert a String into a List of values.

3.2.1. By annotation

If your application needs a list of complex types, write a list type converter by implementing the same interface as before:

public interface IStringConverter<T> {
  T convert(String value);

where T is a List.

For example, here is a list converter that turns a string into a List<File>:

public class FileListConverter implements IStringConverter<List<File>> {
  public List<File> convert(String files) {
    String [] paths = files.split(",");
    List<File> fileList = new ArrayList<>();
    for(String path : paths){
        fileList.add(new File(path));
    return fileList;

Then, all you need to do is declare your field with the correct type and specify the list converter as an attribute:

@Parameter(names = "-files", listConverter = FileListConverter.class)
List<File> file;

Now if you call for application as in the following example:

$ java App -files file1,file2,file3

The parameter file1,file2,file3 is given to the listConverter and will the properly processed.

JCommander ships with a default converter for String values.

3.3. Splitting

Use the splitter= attribute of the @Parameter annotation and assign a custom IParameterSplitter implementation to handle how parameters are split in sub-parts.

3.3.1. By annotation

By default, JCommander tries to split parameters for List field types on commas.

To split parameters on other characters, you can write a custom splitter by implementing the following interface:

public interface IParameterSplitter {
  List<String> split(String value);

For example, here is a splitter that splits a string on semicolon:

public static class SemiColonSplitter implements IParameterSplitter {
    public List<String> split(String value) {
      return Arrays.asList(value.split(";"));

Then, all you need to do is declare your field with the correct type and specify the splitter as an attribute:

@Parameter(names = "-files", converter = FileConverter.class, splitter = SemiColonSplitter.class)
List<File> files;

JCommander will split the string file1;file2;file3 into file1, file2, file3 and feed it one by one to the converter.

4. Parameter validation

Parameter validation can be performed in two different ways: at the individual parameter level or globally.

4.1. Individual parameter validation

You can ask JCommander to perform early validation on your parameters by providing a class that implements the following interface:

public interface IParameterValidator {
   * Validate the parameter.
   * @param name The name of the parameter (e.g. "-host").
   * @param value The value of the parameter that we need to validate
   * @throws ParameterException Thrown if the value of the parameter is invalid.
  void validate(String name, String value) throws ParameterException;

Here is an example implementation that will make sure that the parameter is a positive integer:

public class PositiveInteger implements IParameterValidator {
 public void validate(String name, String value)
      throws ParameterException {
    int n = Integer.parseInt(value);
    if (n < 0) {
      throw new ParameterException("Parameter " + name + " should be positive (found " + value +")");

Specify the name of a class implementing this interface in the validateWith attribute of your @Parameter annotations:

@Parameter(names = "-age", validateWith = PositiveInteger.class)
private Integer age;

Attempting to pass a negative integer to this option will cause a ParameterException to be thrown.

Multiple validators may be specified:

@Parameter(names = "-count", validateWith = { PositiveInteger.class, CustomOddNumberValidator.class })
private Integer value;

4.2. Global parameter validation

After parsing your parameters with JCommander, you might want to perform additional validation across these parameters, such as making sure that two mutually exclusive parameters are not both specified.

 * Validate all parameters.
 * @param parameters
 *            Name-value-pairs of all parameters (e.g. "-host":"localhost").
 * @throws ParameterException
 *             Thrown if validation of the parameters fails.
void validate(Map<String, Object> parameters) throws ParameterException;

Here is an example implementation that will make sure that the boolean options --quiet and --verbose are not enabled at the same time:

public static class QuietAndVerboseAreMutualExclusive implements IParametersValidator {
    public void validate(Map<String, Object> parameters) throws ParameterException {
        if (parameters.get("--quiet") == TRUE && parameters.get("--verbose") == TRUE)
            throw new ParameterException("--quiet and --verbose are mutually exclusive");

Specify the name of a class implementing this interface in the parametersValidators attribute of your @Parameters annotations:

@Parameters(parametersValidators = QuietAndVerboseAreMutualExclusive.class)
class Flags {
    @Parameter(names = "--quiet", description = "Do not output anything")
    boolean quiet;

    @Parameter(names = "--verbose", description = "Output detailed information")
    boolean verbose;

Attempting to enable --quiet and --verbose at the same time will cause a ParameterException to be thrown.

Multiple validators may be specified:

@Parameters(paremetersValidators = { QuietAndVerboseAreMutualExclusive.class, VerboseNeedsLevel.class })
class Flags {
    @Parameter(names = "--quiet", description = "Do not output anything")
    boolean quiet;

    @Parameter(names = "--verbose", description = "Output detailed information")
    boolean verbose;

    @Parameter(names = "--level", description = "Detail level of verbose information")
    Integer level;

5. Main parameter

So far, all the @Parameter annotations we have seen had defined an attribute called names. You can define one (and at most one) parameter without any such attribute. This parameter can be either a List<String> or a single field (for example a String or a type that has a converter, e.g. File), in which case there needs to be exactly one main parameter.

@Parameter(description = "Files")
private List<String> files = new ArrayList<>();

@Parameter(names = "-debug", description = "Debugging level")
private Integer debug = 1;

will allow you to parse:

$ java Main -debug file1 file2

and the field files will receive the strings "file1" and "file2".

6. Private parameters

Parameters can be private:

public class ArgsPrivate {
  @Parameter(names = "-verbose")
  private Integer verbose = 1;

  public Integer getVerbose() {
    return verbose;
ArgsPrivate args = new ArgsPrivate();
    .parse("-verbose", "3");
Assert.assertEquals(args.getVerbose().intValue(), 3);

7. Parameter separators

By default, parameters are separated by spaces, but you can change this setting to allow different separators:

$ java Main -log:3


$ java Main -level=42

You define the separator with the @Parameters annotation:

@Parameters(separators = "=")
public class SeparatorEqual {
  @Parameter(names = "-level")
  private Integer level = 2;

8. Multiple descriptions

You can spread the description of your parameters on more than one class. For example, you can define the following two classes:

public class ArgsMaster {
  @Parameter(names = "-master")
  private String master;

public class ArgsSlave {
  @Parameter(names = "-slave")
  private String slave;

and pass these two objects to JCommander:

ArgsMaster m = new ArgsMaster();
ArgsSlave s = new ArgsSlave();
String[] argv = { "-master", "master", "-slave", "slave" };
    .addObject(new Object[] { m , s })

Assert.assertEquals(m.master, "master");
Assert.assertEquals(s.slave, "slave");

9. @ syntax

JCommander supports the @ syntax, which allows you to put all your options into a file and pass this file as parameter:

$ java Main @/tmp/parameters

10. Arities (multiple values for parameters)

10.1. Fixed arities

If some of your parameters require more than one value, such as the following example where two values are expected after -pairs:

$ java Main -pairs slave master foo.xml

then you need to define your parameter with the arity attribute and make that parameter a List<String>:

@Parameter(names = "-pairs", arity = 2, description = "Pairs")
private List<String> pairs;

You don’t need to specify an arity for parameters of type boolean or Boolean (which have a default arity of 0) and of types String, Integer, int, Long and long (which have a default arity of 1).

Also, note that only List<String> is allowed for parameters that define an arity. You will have to convert these values yourself if the parameters you need are of type Integer or other (this limitation is due to Java’s erasure).

10.2. Variable arities

You can specify that a parameter can receive an indefinite number of parameters, up to the next option. For example:

program -foo a1 a2 a3 -bar
program -foo a1 -bar

Such a parameter can be parsed in two different ways.

10.2.1. With a list

If the number of following parameters is unknown, your parameter must be of type List<String> and you need to set the boolean variableArity to true:

@Parameter(names = "-foo", variableArity = true)
public List<String> foo = new ArrayList<>();

10.2.2. With a class

Alternatively, you can define a class in which the following parameters will be stored, based on their order of appearance:

static class MvParameters {
  @SubParameter(order = 0)
  String from;

  @SubParameter(order = 1)
  String to;

public void arity() {
  class Parameters {
    @Parameter(names = {"--mv"}, arity = 2)
    private MvParameters mvParameters;

  Parameters args = new Parameters();
          .args(new String[]{"--mv", "from", "to"})

  Assert.assertEquals(args.mvParameters.from, "from");
  Assert.assertEquals(args.mvParameters.to, "to");

11. Multiple option names

You can specify more than one option name:

@Parameter(names = { "-d", "--outputDirectory" }, description = "Directory")
private String outputDirectory;

will allow both following syntaxes:

$ java Main -d /tmp
$ java Main --outputDirectory /tmp

12. Other option configurations

You can configure how options are looked up in a few different ways:

  • JCommander#setCaseSensitiveOptions(boolean): specify whether options are case sensitive. If you call this method with false, then "-param" and "-PARAM" are considered equal.

  • JCommander#setAllowAbbreviatedOptions(boolean): specify whether users can pass abbreviated options. If you call this method with true then users can pass "-par" to specify an option called -param. JCommander will throw a ParameterException if the abbreviated name is ambiguous.

13. Required and optional parameters

If some of your parameters are mandatory, you can use the required attribute (which default to false):

@Parameter(names = "-host", required = true)
private String host;

If this parameter is not specified, JCommander will throw an exception telling you which options are missing.

14. Default values

The most common way to specify a default value for your parameters is to initialize the field at declaration time:

private Integer logLevel = 3;

For more complicated cases, you might want to be able to reuse identical default values across several main classes or be able to specify these default values in a centralized location such as a .properties or an XML file. In this case, you can use an IDefaultProvider:

public interface IDefaultProvider {
   * @param optionName The name of the option as specified in the names() attribute
   * of the @Parameter option (e.g. "-file").
   * @return the default value for this option.
  String getDefaultValueFor(String optionName);

By passing an implementation of this interface to your JCommander object, you can now control which default value will be used for your options. Note that the value returned by this method will then be passed to a string converter, if any is applicable, thereby allowing you to specify default values for any types you need.

For example, here is a default provider that will assign a default value of 42 for all your parameters except "-debug":

private static final IDefaultProvider DEFAULT_PROVIDER = new IDefaultProvider() {
  public String getDefaultValueFor(String optionName) {
    return "-debug".equals(optionName) ? "false" : "42";

// ...

JCommander jc = JCommander.newBuilder()
    .addObject(new Args())

For the most common cases, there is no need to actually implement IDefaultProvider, as JCommander contains the classes PropertyFileDefaultProvider and EnvironmentVariableDefaultProvider for reading defaults from a property file (jcommander.properties by default) or from an environment variable (JCOMMANDER_OPTS by default).

15. Help parameter

If one of your parameters is used to display some help or usage, you need use the help attribute:

@Parameter(names = "--help", help = true)
private boolean help;

If you omit this boolean, JCommander will instead issue an error message when it tries to validate your command and it finds that you didn’t specify some of the required parameters.

16. More complex syntaxes (commands)

Complex tools such as git or svn understand a whole set of commands, each of which with their own specific syntax:

$ git commit --amend -m "Bug fix"

Words such as "commit" above are called "commands" in JCommander, and you can specify them by creating one arg object per command:

@Parameters(separators = "=", commandDescription = "Record changes to the repository")
private class CommandCommit {

  @Parameter(description = "The list of files to commit")
  private List<String> files;

  @Parameter(names = "--amend", description = "Amend")
  private Boolean amend = false;

  @Parameter(names = "--author")
  private String author;

@Parameters(commandDescription = "Add file contents to the index")
public class CommandAdd {

  @Parameter(description = "File patterns to add to the index")
  private List<String> patterns;

  @Parameter(names = "-i")
  private Boolean interactive = false;

Then you register these commands with your JCommander object. After the parsing phase, you call getParsedCommand() on your JCommander object, and based on the command that is returned, you know which arg object to inspect (you can still use a main arg object if you want to support options before the first command appears on the command line):

CommandMain cm = new CommandMain();
CommandAdd add = new CommandAdd();
CommandCommit commit = new CommandCommit();
JCommander jc = JCommander.newBuilder()
    .addCommand("add", add);
    .addCommand("commit", commit);

jc.parse("-v", "commit", "--amend", "--author=cbeust", "A.java", "B.java");

Assert.assertEquals(jc.getParsedCommand(), "commit");
Assert.assertEquals(commit.author, "cbeust");
Assert.assertEquals(commit.files, Arrays.asList("A.java", "B.java"));

17. Exception

Whenever JCommander detects an error, it will throw a ParameterException. Note that this is a Runtime Exception, since your application is probably not initialized correctly at this point. Also, ParameterException contains the JCommander instance and you can also invoke usage() on it if you need to display some help.

18. Usage

You can invoke usage() on the JCommander instance that you used to parse your command line in order to generate a summary of all the options that your program understands:

Usage: <main class> [options]
    -debug          Debug mode (default: false)
    -groups         Comma-separated list of group names to be run
  * -log, -verbose  Level of verbosity (default: 1)
    -long           A long number (default: 0)

You can customize the name of your program by calling setProgramName() on your JCommander object. Options preceded by an asterisk are required.

You can also specify the order in which each option should be displayed when calling usage() by setting the order attribute of the @Parameter annotation:

class Parameters {
    @Parameter(names = "--importantOption", order = 0)
    private boolean a;

    @Parameter(names = "--lessImportantOption", order = 3)
    private boolean b;

You can override the description for the default value shown in the usage output:

@Parameter(names = "--start", defaultValueDescription = "The default value is a random number")
int start = Math.random * 100;

19. Hiding parameters

If you don’t want certain parameters to appear in the usage, you can mark them as "hidden":

@Parameter(names = "-debug", description = "Debug mode", hidden = true)
private boolean debug = false;

20. Internationalization

You can internationalize the descriptions of your parameters. First you use the @Parameters annotation at the top of your class to define the name of your message bundle, and then you use the descriptionKey attribute instead of description on all the @Parameters that require translations. This descriptionKey is the key to the string into your message bundle:

@Parameters(resourceBundle = "MessageBundle")
private class ArgsI18N2 {
  @Parameter(names = "-host", description = "Host", descriptionKey = "host")
  String hostName;

Your bundle needs to define this key:

host: Hôte

JCommander will then use the default locale to resolve your descriptions.

21. Parameter delegates

If you are writing many different tools in the same project, you will probably find that most of these tools can share configurations. While you can use inheritance with your objects to avoid repeating this code, the restriction to single inheritance of implementation might limit your flexibility. To address this problem, JCommander supports parameter delegates.

When JCommander encounters an object annotated with @ParameterDelegate in one of your objects, it acts as if this object had been added as a description object itself:

class Delegate {
  @Parameter(names = "-port")
  private int port;

class MainParams {
  @Parameter(names = "-v")
  private boolean verbose;

  private Delegate delegate = new Delegate();

The example above specifies a delegate parameter Delegate which is then referenced in MainParams. You only need to add a MainParams object to your JCommander configuration in order to use the delegate:

MainParams p = new MainParams();
    .parse("-v", "-port", "1234");
Assert.assertEquals(p.delegate.port, 1234);

22. Dynamic parameters

JCommander allows you to specify parameters that are not known at compile time, such as -Da=b -Dc=d. Such parameters are specified with the @DynamicParameter annotation and must be of type Map<String, String>. Dynamic parameters are allowed to appear multiple times on the command line:

@DynamicParameter(names = "-D", description = "Dynamic parameters go here")
private Map<String, String> params = new HashMap<>();

You can specify a different assignment string than = by using the attribute assignment.

23. Custom usage formats

JCommander allows you to customize the output of the JCommander#usage() method. You can do this by subclassing IUsageFormatter and then calling JCommander#setUsageFormatter(IUsageFormatter).

An example of a usage formatter which only prints the parameter names, separated by new lines is shown below:

class ParameterNamesUsageFormatter implements IUsageFormatter {

    // Extend other required methods as seen in DefaultUsageFormatter

    // This is the method which does the actual output formatting
    public void usage(StringBuilder out, String indent) {
        if (commander.getDescriptions() == null) {

        // Create a list of the parameters
        List<ParameterDescription> params = Lists.newArrayList();

        // Append all the parameter names
        if (params.size() > 0) {

            for (ParameterDescription pd : params) {

24. JCommander in other languages

24.1. Kotlin

class Args {
    var targets: List<String> = arrayListOf()

    @Parameter(names = ["-bf", "--buildFile"], description = "The build file")
    var buildFile: String? = null

    @Parameter(names = ["--checkVersions"],
               description = "Check if there are any newer versions of the dependencies")
    var checkVersions = false

24.2. Groovy

Courtesy of Paul King:

import com.beust.jcommander.*

class Args {
  @Parameter(names = ["-f", "--file"], description = "File to load. Can be specified multiple times.")
  List<String> file

new Args().with {
  file.each { println "file: ${new File(it).name}" }

25. More examples

Here are the description files for a few projects that use JCommander:

26. Mailing list

Join the JCommander Google group if you are interested in discussions about JCommander.

27. Javadocs

The Javadocs for JCommander can be found here.

28. License

JCommander is released under the Apache 2.0 license.

29. Download

You can download JCommander from the following locations:

  • Gradle

compile "org.jcommander:jcommander:1.83"
  • Maven: